“It is characteristic of the Western mind that it has no concept for Tao.” (C.G. Jung in Wilhelm 1962)

The “natural way of things,” the dao, is linked with balance and harmony, while its underlying foundation is that of transformation. Transformation is based on the natural cycle of life where things come and go but no concrete progress is made towards a particular point of time in the future, in contrast to the Western concept of a telos (Miller 2006).

The concept of dualism, which is also an inherent feature of nature and cosmos, rests on the particular yin-yang cosmology developed by the Han (Kohn 2009). Here, the two complementary forces of yin 阴 and yang 阳 represent a particular form of dualism but a dualism without dichotomy, where the two forces are fluent and in constant interchange.